次の英文は、英検1級の過去問題です。パラグラフごとに、抄訳(サマリー)

を日本語で入れてあります。このサマリーは、私が英文を読むときに、

パラグラフごとに意味を大づかみする、理解の仕方をあらわしているとも言えます。

穴埋め問題の急所は、文章の意味のつながりが理解できているかどうかを聞いているのであり、

それを理解すれば正解は得られます。


過去問


The Laser

There have been countless advances in science and technology over

the past century that can be said to have laid the foundation for today's

technology-dependent information society. But when we consider innovations

like the computer, the Internet, cell phones, and satellites,

we should keep in mind that these are actually amalgamations of various technologies.

The building blocks of the appliances of our wired world-memory chips,

integrated circuits, microprocessors, and so on-are perhaps less recognized

and less heralded by the general populace than the applications ( 26 ).

But one innovation that is known in its own right equivalently or even

more so than for its myriad applications is light amplification

by stimulated emission of radiation, commonly known in its acronymic form: laser.

Infrared and Optical Masers by Arthur Schawlow and Charles Townes,

which was published in 1958, was the research paper that initiated

this new scientific field and laid the foundation for today's

multibillion-dollar industry associated with lasers.

The predecessor to the laser ( 27 ) since it operated under similar principles

using microwaves instead of light waves.

Essentially a laser is a device which uses a quantum mechanical

effect- namely, stimulated emission-to generate a very collimated, monochromatic,

and coherent beam of light. Laser light can be of very high intensity,

enabling it to cut diamonds, steel, and other hard materials.

But the key to the wide-range applicability of laser beams is their

low level of divergence. Most light sources, by contrast,

emit photons in all directions and usually over a wide spectrum of wavelengths.

Lasers today are widely used in consumer electronics, communications, medicine,

manufacturing, and scientific research among other fields.

Yet, while most people have a general, if somewhat superficial,

understanding of laser technology, its ( 28 ) to our everyday

life is sometimes overlooked.

Take, for example, communications. Laser light channels telephone conversations,

video, Internet traffic, and other data through glass fibers at capacities

incomparable to conventional wire carrier lines. In fact,

lasers are the building blocks for systems that can transmit

hundreds of billions of bits of information every second of every day.

And with the constant demand for higher transmission capacities,

the role of lasers in this application, as with others, will only grow.


(26)

1.in which they cannot be used

2.where they were developed

3.in which they are incorporated

4.that are unknown


(27)

1.never became obsolete

2.had few applications

3.spurred economic incentives

4.was coined "maser"


(28)

1.former relevance

2.rising redundancy

3.increasing indispensability

4.potential danger


問題解説


The Laser

There have been countless advances in science and technology over the past century

that can be said to have laid the foundation for today's

technology-dependent information society.

But when we consider innovations like the computer, the Internet, cell phones,

and satellites, we should keep in mind that these are actually amalgamations

of various technologies. The building blocks of the appliances

of our wired world-memory chips, integrated circuits, microprocessors,

and so on-are perhaps less recognized and less heralded by the general

populace than the applications ( 26 ).


コンピューター、インターネット、携帯電話、

人工衛星などは様々な技術が融合したものだが、それらの構成要素であるメモリーチップ、

集積回路、マイクロプロセッサーなどについては余り知られていない。


(26)

1.in which they cannot be used

2.where they were developed

3.in which they are incorporated

4.that are unknown


(26)メモリーチップ、集積回路、マイクロプロセッサーなどは、

それらの技術の集大成であるコンピューター、インターネット、携帯電話、

人工衛星などと比べて認知度が低いという意味なので、3番が正解です。

in which they のtheyはメモリーチップ、集積回路、マイクロプロセッサーのことです。

1、2、4はどれも意味を成しません

But one innovation that is known in its own right equivalently or even more

so than for its myriad applications is light amplification by stimulated

emission of radiation, commonly known in its acronymic form: laser.


Laserは、light amplilification by stimulated emission of radiation

の頭文字をとったもの。


Infrared and Optical Masers by Arthur Schawlow and Charles Townes,

which was published in 1958, was the research paper

that initiated this new scientific field and laid the foundation for today's

multibillion-dollar industry associated with lasers.

The predecessor to the laser ( 27 ) since it operated under similar principles using

instead of light waves.

レーザー(light waveを使う)の前身はメーザー(Microwaveを使う)と言われていた


(27)

1.never became obsolete

2.had few applications

3.spurred economic incentives

4.was coined "maser"


レーザーの前身は(27)と言われていた、その理由はlight wavesではなくmicrowaveを

使うからだという論旨です。light waves→laser、microwave→maserと気がつくことが

正解にたどりつくためのポイントです。レーザー(light waveを使う)

の前身はメーザー(Microwaveを使う)と言われていたという論旨の4番が正解です。

coinedという単語を知らない場合、少し不安が残りますが、1、2、3のどれも意味を成しません


Essentially a laser is a device which uses a quantum mechanical effect- namely,

stimulated emission-to generate a very collimated, monochromatic,

and coherent beam of light. Laser light can be of very high intensity,

enabling it to cut diamonds, steel, and other hard materials.

But the key to the wide-range applicability of laser beams is

their low level of divergence. Most light sources, by contrast,

emit photons in all directions and usually over a wide spectrum of wavelengths.

レーザーの特徴:@硬いものを切断、Aフォトンの出し方が他のものとは異なる

Lasers today are widely used in consumer electronics, communications, medicine,

manufacturing, and scientific research among other fields.

Yet, while most people have a general, if somewhat superficial,

understanding of laser technology, its ( 28 ) to our everyday

life is sometimes overlooked.

レーザーは毎日の生活に不可欠のものになっているが、そのことはあまり知られていない。


(28)

1.former relevance

2.rising redundancy

3.increasing indispensability

4.potential danger


Take, for example, communications. Laser light channels telephone conversations, video,

Internet traffic, and other data through glass fibers

at capacities incomparable to conventional wire carrier lines. In fact,

lasers are the building blocks for systems that can transmit hundreds

of billions of bits of information every second of every day.

And with the constant demand for higher transmission capacities,

the role of lasers in this application, as with others, will only grow.

ブロードバンド時代にはレーザーの役割はさらに大きくなる


have laid the foundation for

---の基礎となった

technology-dependent information society

技術に依存した情報化社会

in its own right

それ自身として

quantum mechanical effect

量子力学的効果

a very collimated, monochromatic, and coherent beam of light

collimate

vt. (光線などを)平行にする; 視準する.

monochrome

n. 単彩画(法), 白黒写真. a. 単色の; 白黒の.

coherent

a. 密着する; 首尾一貫した; 【物】干渉性の.coherent radiation【物】干渉性放射.

coherent scattering 【物】干渉性散乱.

photons

光子