■単語を単語帳のままで機械的に覚えるのは労多くして益少なし

単語帳を否定するものではありませんが、単語を、ひとつずつ、 単語帳に載っている通りの意味で

機械的に覚えていくのはほとんど意味がないというのが私の意見です。

言い換えれば、単語帳は、使い方を工夫すれば大いに役に立つということです。

この言い方だと、ほとんどの人が違和感を持ち、ぴんと来ないと思います。

私の手元に有る単語帳の中からわかりやすい例を挙げましょう。

Exemplify 〜を例証する、実証する

何のことかわかりますか? 仮に意味がおぼろげながらわかったとしても、どういうときに

どのようにしてこの単語を使えばいいのかわからないでしょう。少なくとも、私にはわかりません。

試しに、英々辞典を引くと、同義語としてrepresentとillustrateが出ています。

A To illustrate by example: exemplify an argument

B To serve as an example of: scenes that exemplify the film director’s style

これなら意味がわかるし、英作文やスピーチでも使えます

■単語は単語の塊で覚える

もうひとつ、例を挙げましょう。〜を放棄する

relinquish abandon renounce

息子が土地相続の権利を放棄した、日本国憲法の戦争放棄、要らなくなったから捨てる

どの単語をどれに使えばいいのかさっぱりわかりません。

使えない単語は知らないのと変わりません。それに、使わないからすぐに忘れます。

日本国憲法の第9条、戦争の放棄はrenunciation of warであり、relinquishment of warや

abandoning warではありません。

これは、日本国が世界の人々に対して、平和の誓いを広く宣言するという意味を含んでいるからこそ、

renounceをわざわざ使っているのです。

renounceはrenunciation of warで覚えるのが効果的です。

こうすれば一生忘れないし、使うべき場所を間違えないし、英作文やスピーチですぐに使えるし、

renounceが動詞、renunciationが名詞であることが一度に覚えらます。

■単語は短文で覚える

英検は、毎回、25個の短文問題を出します。20か21個が単語選択、残りが熟語の選択です。

選択肢が4つ。私は、英検の過去問を集めて編集し、正解の選択肢を入れた形の短文を

1000個近く作っておりそれを丸ごと覚えてしまいます。

こうすれば単語や熟語を使う正しい場所だけでなく、

文型も覚えられますし、英作文やスピーキングにも直結します。

英作文は、短文の集まり、短文は単語の集まりです。

1〜2行程度の短い完結した文章を丸ごと覚えてしまうのです。20回くらい音読すれば記憶できます。

忘れたら復習すればいいのです。復習するときは前回のベースがあるから早く記憶できます。

英検の短文問題は4択から正解を選びます(下記は2007年度第2回の過去問です)

It took Ken a few weeks to ( ) the courage to tell his parents that he had failed two of

his final university exams.

1.pester 2.dangle 3.wriggle 4.muster

正解は4.musterですが、ここで勉強を終わるのではなく

It took Ken a few weeks to muster the courage to tell his parents that he had failed two of

his final university exams.

という、正解が入った短文を用意し、丸ごと覚えるのです。10回も音読すれば暗記できます。

これを1000個マスターずれば、誰だって英語の達人になれます。私も紆余曲折しましたが、

この方法がベストというのが結論でした。

因みに、この方法は、大学入試対策としてもそのまま使えると思います。

■単語は、名詞、動詞、形容詞、副詞、同義語、反意語を関連付けてダイナミックに理解する

eulogy が出たら、葬式の弔辞や追悼演説を思い浮かべる。moving eulogyで感動的な弔辞を思い浮かべる。

pay tribute toとどう違うのか辞書で調べておく、ついでにpay homage toとどう違うのかも調べておき、

3つの表現をまとめて整理しておくことが大事です。こうすれば一生忘れません。

単語帳の中のeulogyという単語を単純に弔辞と記憶するだけでは何にも役にたたないし、

覚えることが苦痛でさえあります。単語は、応用展開することで楽しい勉強に転換することができます。

erupt 噴火するが出たら、volcano火山を思い出す。ついでに、活火山(active volcano)、

休火山(dormant volcano)死火山(extinct) volcanoを思い出す。

extinctが出たら、extinct species、ついでに、絶滅に瀕したendangered speciesもセットで整理しておく

abhorひどく嫌う、忌み嫌う、憎悪する、abominate忌み嫌う、憎悪する(=loathe, abominate, detest)

animosity悪意、敵意、恨み、憎悪、antagonism敵意、反対、反抗心、反目、敵対

手元の単語帳の最初の数ページから引っ張り出しましたが、似たような意味の単語ばかりが並んで

混乱するのでセットにして整理整頓することが大事です

Arcticが出たらAntarctic、ついでにNorth pole South poleもセットで覚えましょう

1500個くらいの重要単語・熟語についてこのような押さえ方をしておけば、

すばらしい英語の使い手になることは明らかです。

■単語は、背景や使っているシーンでビジュアルに記憶する

<例1:appease>

appease が出たらappeasementを思い出す。appeasementはappeasement policyを思いだす。

appeasement policyは宥和政策と訳される。これは、1938年、ヒットラーの山荘でイギリスの、

チェンバレン首相フランスのダラディエ外相が会談し、欧州大戦を防ぐべくヒットラーを宥めた会談ですが、

チェコの分割を許したにもかかわらず、

1939年にはドイツはポーランドに攻め込み英仏はついにドイツに宣戦布告します。

このことは世界史の教科書にも書かれています。

appeaseだけ覚えても、ほとんど使い物になりません。Appeasement policyとして、

現代史の中で理解していけば使えるし、記憶が確かになります。

<例2:enigma>

enigmaは摩訶不思議な力を持ったものを表現する単語です。元々は、第二次大戦中にドイツ軍が使っていた、

機密文書を暗号に組む機械ですが、イギリス諜報部はそれを手に入れ、天才的な数学者を使って解読に成功します。

大戦中のドイツ軍の機密文書はすべて連合国側に漏れていました。ドイツ空軍がコベントリーという町を大空襲し、

壊滅させ、多くの犠牲者を出しました。この町が狙われたのは、スピットファイアという戦闘機のエンジンを

生産するロールスロイルの工場があったからです。

チャーチル戦争内閣はこの空襲の情報をほぼ正確につかんでいましたが、

避難命令を出すと、暗号が解読されていることをドイツ側に知られてしまうので、避難命令は出されませんでした。

戦争に勝つというより大きな戦略のために、多くの、無辜の一般市民の生命が失われた事件です。

こういう背景を知っていれば、enigmaという単語を一生記憶することができます。

■英検の単語にまつわる神話のうそ

英検のパート1に出てくる単語や熟語は奇問難問であり、ネイティブでもわからない---

こういう伝説がまことしやかに囁かれていますが、根拠のないうそです。あそこに出る単語の大半は、

タイム、ニュースウイーク、エコノミストなどで普通に出てくる単語です。

オックスフォード大学卒のイギリス人の友人に解かせたら、あっという間に全問正解でした。

できなかったというネイティブは、よほど教養に欠ける人だったのでしょう。

タイム、ニュースウイーク、エコノミストなどが辞書無しで読める人は、パート1の単語・熟語選択問題で

あっという間に満点をとっても不思議はありません

■英検1級短文集―新傾向2004-1から2007-3まで12回分、300個の問題を、正解を入れた短文として

私自身が編集したものです。英検がどの程度のレベルの試験なのかをつかむためにも有効な情報ですし、

何よりも、これを丸暗記するくらい学習すれば、英語力の飛躍的向上につながることは間違いありません

2004-1

1. The wedding ceremony turned into a complete fiasco when the bride suddenly confessed that

she was already married.

2. I couldn't follow all of the President's speech,

but I understood enough to get the gist of what he was saying.

3. With more than 60 books to his name,

the novelist was one of the most prolific of the twentieth century.

4. Hundreds of residents were left destitute after the earthquake destroyed their town.

5. Rather than venting his frustration by yelling at co-workers,

the manager would step outside the office and take a deep breath when he felt angry.

6. When the cable-TV company conducted a survey about the quality of its service, 

customers responded with a barrage of complaints.

7. Ms. White made her latest expedition under the auspices of Globe 2005, a group

that has been sponsoring her record-breaking treks for 10 years.

8. The man was forced to pawn his watch to help pay the rent,

but he got it back when his next paycheck arrived.

9. John realized that it would take many years to recoup the money he had lost in the stock market.

10. For Sale: Rare collection of 1960s records in pristine condition!

Some never opened. Call 555-1212.

11. Guards at Ipswich Prison managed to thwart an escape attempt last night.

Prisoners tried to climb over the wall but were caught before they could get away.

12. The presidential candidate said that it was time to halt the polarization of society

into the haves and the have-nots. "If elected, I will be a force for unity," she claimed.

13. Rugby star Johnny Martin has finally ended the recent media speculation about

his future by announcing his retirement from the sport.

14. Efforts to supply blankets and tents to people made homeless after

the massive flood have seriously depleted

the aid agency's funds. "We urgently need more donations now to keep up the flow of aid,"

15. Under pressure from environmentalists, Watney Council has voted to create

a 40-acre buffer zone to protect Watney Marsh, a haven for wild birds,

16. Star striker Jason Cohen hopes to emulate his father by leading his team to victory

in this weekend's cup final.

Cohen's father, George, scored the winning goal in the 1970 final.

17. The prime minister claimed at a media conference Thursday that no nation is immune to terrorism.

She said that terrorists can strike anywhere and at any time.

18. The young couple agonized over whether to sell their house,

but finally decided to after realizing it was the only way to save the family business.

19. After the drunk became belligerent , the bar manager was forced to call the police

and ask that the man be removed from the bar.

20. A : Do you really think you'll be able to win the championship this year?

B : It'll be a cinch . We have the strongest lineup in the league.

21. Journalists delved into the politician's past in the hope of uncovering some scandal.

22. I hurt my knee playing football in university, and now it tends to act up in cold weather.

23. None of the students would own up to breaking the window,

even though the teacher said that no one would be punished.

24. Although it is a slow process, major video rental stores are beginning to phase out videos

in favor of DVDs.One manager estimates that videos will be a thing of the past by 2010.

25. Her mother-in-law called to say she was coming to visit that evening,

so Ellen rushed to whip up something quick for dinner.

2004-2

26. The scholar claimed to have discovered a new poem by Shakespeare,

but a group of handwriting analysts proved that it was a forgery.

27. Joe took two weeks off to recuperate after his surgery. He's now fully recovered and back at work.

28. The demanding manager put relentless pressure

on his staff by raising their sales quota every month,

29. "Our nuclear weapons are there as a deterrent against attack," declared the new prime minister.

"We would only use them if no other options were open to us."

30. No conditions stipulated in the contract shall be modified without mutual agreement.

31. As the strongest proponent of the bill to protect his state's wetlands,

Senator Collins worked tirelessly to ensure its passage through the legislature.

32. The company's lackluster sales performance was blamed on a stubborn refusal to change

its outdated product line.

33. The climb up the mountain was a long, arduous one that left everyone out of breath.

34. After months of being followed and stared at,

the famous young singer longed for her former anonymity.

35. All of the job applicants were similarly qualified, but the interviewers were swayed

by the fact that Steve could speak French.

36. Opponents blasted the presidential candidate's latest TV advertisement as blatantly dishonest,

"There is not a shred of evidence to back up the claims he makes," said one senator.

37. It took several hours for the men to heave the sacks of cement onto the truck,

and another hour to unload them, at the construction site.

38. The young tennis player, once touted as the next superstar in Russian tennis,

has struggled to meet expectations due to a series of injuries.

39. "Fraudulent investment schemes are a growing problem," warned the speaker,

"Thousands of ordinary people have been cheated out of their savings."

40. As Brandon walked past the abandoned building,

he had the eerie feeling that he was being watched.

41. The boxing champion may be ruthless inside the ring, but outside he is an affable character

who is quite happy to sign autographs and chat with fans.

much easier for me by the support of my host family.

43. The famous young actor liked to flaunt his wealth by taking friends on lavish shopping sprees.

44. Thanks to the worldwide success of its new line of software, the firm's sales eclipsed

all expectations, exceeding the previous year's by $100 million.

45. The two-day training program for the new employees was carried out so haphazardly

46. With just seconds left on the clock, the basketball coach exhorted his team to make one final effort.

"Now go out there and prove that you're the best!" he shouted.

47. With daylight running short and still no sign of the lost hikers,

the search party fanned out to cover more territory.

48. "I appreciate how nice you're being to me all of a sudden," the father told his two sons,

"but I know when I'm being buttered up . Now, what is it you want?"

49. I know that Ben can churn out articles very quickly, but I wish he'd pay more attention to detail.

There are full of spelling mistakes.

50. When I confronted John about his lack of effort at work, he just rattled off a list of excuses.

His attitude really disappoints me.

2004-3

51. The bullet was so deeply embedded in the soldier's back

that a long operation was required to extract it.

52. The new secretary was sternly admonished for taking a long lunch break three days in a row.

53. Many fruit-growing regions have a large transient population that arrives each year to help

with the harvest and then moves on to other places.

54. It takes a shrewd businessman to make money in the restaurant industry, where risks are high,

profits are low, and many establishments fail within the first two years.

55. Chad's donating of so many clothes to the homeless was not as altruistic as it looked;

he merely wanted to clean out his closet to make space for some new suits.

56. A : Doc, my back cramps are still excruciatingly painful. Are the test results back?B : Not yet,

but your symptoms suggest that you have a kidney stone.

57. The writer refused to read reviews of his work, regarding any criticism as a personal affront .

58. We tried to placate the angry customer by offering to replace the faulty parts,

but he still demanded a full refund.

59. Smallpox was a devastating disease for generations but has now been eradicated in all parts of the world.

60. The allure of Hollywood attracts many young would-be actors and actresses,

but only a few make it onto the big screen.

61. The audience was impressed by the candor with which the prime minister answered

the interviewer's questions about his private life.

62. Although the ship captain seemed rather intimidating at times, beneath his facade was a compassionate man.

63. His opponent said the president's recent pledge to lower taxes was

just a gimmick to create a favorable impression on voters.

64. The new managing director, heedless of the warnings of his economic advisors,

plunged the company further and further into debt.

65. The manuscript of the famous writer's first novel had languished unknown in a box of old

papers until it was discovered by a young researcher.

66. One student lingered behind after class, so the teacher guessed she wanted to talk about something.

67. Although the ostensible purpose of the meeting between the leaders was to discuss trade,

most observers believed that the recent border dispute would be the main topic of discussion.

68. The company launched an ad-campaign to rebut charges

in the press that it was exploiting workers in Third World countries.

69. We were shocked to find that someone had scrawled graffiti all over our garage.

70. Many scientists considered the new theory about the origins of mankind spurious ,

arguing that it was based on a misunderstanding of the evidence.

71. Leaving the gala dinner, the film star pushed his way through the throng of fans

and got into his waiting limousine.

72. However hard he tried to pay attention to the history professor's lecture,

Bill often found himself nodding off and missing important points.

73. Over dinner, Jim's boss revealed that he was toying with the idea of opening a new office in Paris.

74. The economy is showing signs of recovery. Consumer demand is increasing,

and the rise in the unemployment rate has finally begun to taper off .

75. The rap singer told the media, "You can criticize my music,

but don't go poking around in my family's private affairs."

2005-1

76. Since the manager had such a roundabout way of talking,

people often misunderstood the point that he was trying to make.

77. All the dancers at the festival were flamboyantly dressed in colorful silk costumes with gold trim.

78. I was so nervous about my first day on the job that I inadvertently walked into the wrong office.

79. Police have arrested two people in connection with recent

incidents involving counterfeit bills being used at local businesses.

Investigators believe the two may have printed the bills as well.

80. Gray squirrels are very common in the British Isles, but actually they are not indigenous.

They were first brought over from America during the reign of Queen Victoria.

81. Many senior citizens are forming political associations to promote their interests.

"If we seniors work together, we can have great political clout," said one man.

82. When the fire alarm went off during the performance, there was pandemonium.

Everyone in the audience panicked and ran for the exits.

83. Wage talks between the union and management have led to a stalemate,

with little chance of progress unless one side shifts position.

84. The lost climber, who had been missing for nearly a week,

was in relatively good spirits when she was found,

although she looked emaciated from a lack of food and water.

85. The rumors concerning the company's financial troubles were so persistent

that management suspected a rival of orchestrating a campaign to damage its credibility.

86. When Pierre asked his boss why she was late for the meeting, she replied curtly

that it was none of his business.

87. The speaker at the political rally assailed the federal government for its failure to deal

with the growing problem of illegal immigration.

88. Having just won first prize in the gymnastics competition,

the boy basked in the approval and admiration of his friends.

89. Billy's mom tried to cajole him into eating the spinach on his plate,

but nothing she said seemed to work.

90. Although the violinist's performance had been technically impeccable,

one judge argued that the rendition was mechanical and lacked passion.

91. The commission appointed to investigate the political scandal eventually exonerated

the prime minister of any responsibility in the affair.

92. Although the critic felt a strong antipathy to the artist as a person,

he could not avoid recognizing her genius as a painter.

93. Not only was the woman's new job better paying, it had the added perk of

free childcare during office hours.

94. After investigating a series of bank robberies in town,

the police managed to catch the culprit by anticipating his next target.

95.The columnist criticized the new play for its stereotypical characters and

banal script, and wondered how it had ever reached the production stage.

96. The magazine specialized in printing lurid gossip concerning the private lives of celebrities.

97. The biographer spent hours in the local library poring over old newspapers

in the hope of turning up some interesting facts about the politician's background.

98. Mountain View is one of the country's best ski resorts. Every year,

thousands of tourists descend on the area, pumping millions of dollars into the local economy.

99. A : You've been staring at that physics textbook for hours!

B : I know. I enjoy the course, but I have to read each chapter three or four times

before it really sinks in"

100.The prison inmates respected the chaplain because he had spent time behind bars himself

and was able to identify with their needs and concerns.

2005-2

101.The company seems to have weathered the worst of the economic downturn

and to be on the way to becoming profitable again.

102."There has never been a government as inept as this," claimed the opposition leader.

"High unemployment, high inflation, a failing health-care system. It's a disgrace."

103."An average score of 80 percent or higher in high-school algebra and physics is

a prerequisite for those who want to pursue a degree in engineering,"

"stated the university admissions officer.

104.As human development encroaches ever further into the jungles of the Amazon,

many wildlife habitats have become threatened.

105.The state did its best to improve public education

but found itself fettered by the limits on public expenditure.

106.When the cowboy approached the wild horse, the animal suddenly bolted

and jumped over the fence.

107.Although the headmaster did not say so openly,

his words carried the implicit threat that if the boy's grades did not improve,

he would be asked to leave the school.

108.Make sure that you replenish the items on the shelves as soon as they are sold,

so that there is a constant supply for customers.

109.When the company proposed another five percent cut in salary,

disgruntled employees threatened to walk out.

110.The famous scholar often seemed so cold and aloof that many of

his students were hesitant to ask questions after his lectures,

111.The girl who had been caught shoplifting only realized the gravity of her situation

when the shopkeeper called the police.

112.Opposition among environmental groups to continued logging was galvanized by

the release of a report revealing a sharp decline in the area's wildlife.

113.The nation's defeat in the war led to a period of intense political upheaval

as various groups competed to replace the discredited leadership.

114.The search party moved slowly across the treacherous mountain terrain,

which had been made even more dangerous by the recent snowfall.

115.Human rights groups have accused military forces of committing

atrocities against the civilian population and have called for an independent investigation.

116.At the meeting, some board members expressed strong doubts about the feasibility

of our proposal, arguing that our estimate of production costs was unrealistically low.

117.The town looked so serene in the early morning light that it was hard to believe

that only a few hours earlier it had been in the grip of a raging typhoon.

118.The spokesperson for the international charity criticized the governments

of wealthy countries for remaining oblivious to the needs of the poor.

119.Plant these seeds and keep them indoors during the winter; then,

a few weeks after they sprout in the spring, replant them in flowerbeds outside.

120.All my efforts to sleep on the flight were futile. The seat was uncomfortable,

and the baby in the seat behind me was constantly crying.

121.While being questioned, the witness maintained a calm and pleasant demeanor,

making his testimony more believable to the jury.

122.The company's new technical consultant had an amazing gift for zeroing in

on the causes of problems in the computer network.

123.After the fire in the hotel, investigators sealed off the building until

they had completed their search for clues.

124.A : Mr. Rogers, I'd appreciate it if you'd let me finish what I want to say,

instead of constantly butting in like that. B : I apologize, Ms. McDermott. Please go on.

125."Stop shouting! Take a few minutes to simmer down, and then

we'll discuss things calmly, like adults."

2005-3

126.Thanks to burgeoning demand for its molded plastic products, PlakCell is looking to build

three more production plants in Southeast Asia in the next five years.

127.As the manager's workload increased, he was forced to delegate

more and more responsibilities to his staff.

128.Even though the movie was over three hours long, the amazing special effects kept

the audience totally mesmerized until the spectacular climax.

129.The escaped convict managed to elude the authorities by changing

his appearance and using a false passport.

130."If approved, the proposed tax changes will clearly be detrimental to small companies,"

said one local businessman. "In fact, I predict that many of us will go out of business."

131.A complete cessation of hostilities has been agreed to by both sides in the war.

Negotiations for a permanent peace settlement are to begin immediately.

132.The teacher berated the student angrily in front of the whole class for his bad manners.

133.When you bring a pet back from overseas, it is usually put in quarantine for a certain

period to make sure that it is free of disease.

134.As soon as the pop star stepped out of her limousine,

she was besieged by reporters asking her questions about her latest scandal.

135.Meeting for the first time in over 40 years, the two former schoolmates began to reminisce

about their youth and the adventures they had shared together.

136.The prime minister delivered a moving eulogy at the elder statesman's funeral,

saying that he had helped millions by devoting his life to fighting racial injustice.

137.Although six people in the company are vying for the new managerial position,

Steve believes that his proven track record gives him a clear advantage over the others.

138.As part of its new campaign, the health ministry is using a well-known

soccer star to help it disseminate information about HIV to the general public.

139.Mozart, one of the world's greatest composers, was a child prodigy who wrote

his first composition at the age of five.

140.The government's delay in appointing a new ambassador

to the U.N. is seen as indicative of its general attitude toward the world body.

141.Although art critics thought that the new corporate headquarters were aesthetically pleasing,

employees found the building's design impractical for their day-to-day operations.

142.Women's rights groups are urging people not to buy the author's latest book.

They say he defaces women when he suggests that their place is in the home.

143.Before meeting with management, union representatives made a list of grievances they wanted

addressed before they would agree to end the strike.

144.The graphic scenes of violence in the movie so repulsed many viewers

that there were even calls for the government to ban it.

145.Despite having had great hopes at the start of the rugby season,

the team's players now feel totally demoralized after losing their sixth game in a row.

146.The carmaker's fortunes have fluctuated greatly in recent years.

It went from industry leader to near bankruptcy and is now profitable again.

147.I am happy to recommend this applicant. As his teacher for the past five years,

I can vouch for his character and trustworthiness.

148.The weekly meeting was a chance for employees to sound off about problems and concerns

they couldn't mention directly to their company superiors.

149.John loved going to the theater and would quickly snap up any tickets

he could get his hands on.

150.The TV personality lashed out at the media for publishing photographs of his family on vacation.

"Why can't you leave them alone?" he demanded.

2006-1

151."The recent budget cuts to the emergency services have severely diminished

our ability to respond quickly to calls," a spokesperson claimed yesterday.

152.Although Asako's husband preferred to spend his weekends quietly at home,

she was a very gregarious person who liked to organize parties and meet new people.

153."Divorce involves a lot of traumatic changes for children,

so it's extremely important not to alienate them from either parent,"

the counselor advised the couple.

154.Facing bankruptcy, the furniture company was forced to liquidate

its remaining assets to pay off its debts.

155.Rumors that the royal marriage was in trouble were supported by a woman

who claimed to have had clandestine meetings with the prince.

She revealed that they had been seeing each other for months.

156.Although the nature documentary's theme was not especially original,

the cinematography was so exquisite that the film won acclaim from critics worldwide.

157.The gold medalist paid homage to her coach at the news conference,

saying that she would never have won the 10,000-meter race without his support.

158.As part of the nation's arms buildup, the navy has announced that it will procure

two new nuclear-powered aircraft carriers from the nation's biggest defense contractor.

159.With the collapse of his government, the disgraced president

sought political asylum in a neighboring country.

160.Jill was happy when she solved a crossword puzzle that had stumped everyone else in her family.

161.A : How was the wine-tasting party last night? B : It was awful.

My husband got so drunk that when he made a speech at the end, he was totally incoherent.

Even I couldn't understand what he was trying to say.

162.A : Hi, Gabriel, I heard that you started taking judo classes. B : Yeah, that's right. Of course,

I'm still a novice, but my instructor says I have the potential to be pretty good.

163.After another exchange of gunfire at the disputed border,

peace envoy James Nkomo has called for both sides to show restraint.

"The solution must come through dialogue, not violence," he said.

164.A : Jim, I've got great tickets for the basketball final,

but the company president has invited me to dinner that night. What should I do?

B : I sympathize with your predicament , but I don't think you should miss the Dinner.

165.FundSmart Inc.'s CEO Roberta Gonzales outlined the rationale for the company's merger

with rival Investerm. "Together, we can increase efficiency and compete more successfully," she said.

166.A : What did they say about your knee at the clinic, Liz?

B : The prognosis is better than I expected.

The doctor said that I can make a full recovery in a couple of months.

167.Labor leaders argued that the President's fiscal policies only benefited

the wealthy and that working families would bear the brunt of his budget cuts.

168.The Randolph Inn is known for its meticulous attention to detail.

Each of the 152 rooms is decorated individually with beautiful antique furnishings and artwork.

169.In hindsight, Miho realized that she had been foolish to leave university before completing her degree.

At the time, however, she felt that work experience would be more useful to her.

170.In response to ongoing communal violence, the city's police chief has stated

that a strict curfew will be introduced as of today. Nobody will be allowed out on the streets

from 11p.m. to 6 a.m.

171.Last night, a strong storm hit the tiny port of Wellesley and

irreparably damaged at least seven fishing boats. "My boat was all I had.

I have no idea what I'm going to do now," said one owner.

172.At a media conference, the company president at the center of the scandal fended off reporters'

questions with lengthy and indirect replies.

173.A : Professor Smith, you wanted to see me?

B : Yes. Your recent essays have been very disappointing, Leroy. I'm going to level with you.

If you don't start getting better grades, there's a real chance you'll fail this course.

174.The new conservative government is cracking down on illegal workers.

Immigration officials have raided factories throughout the country to check on workers' documentation.

175.The team manager was hoping that the veteran player's fantastic work ethic

and knowledge of the game would rub off on the younger players.

2006-2

176.After returning from the war, the soldier was tormented by nightmares,

so he sought help from a counselor.

177.Mr. Andrews didn't quite finish the marathon, but he sure made a valiant effort.

Imagine running more than 35 kilometers at the age of 75!

178.Despite the restaurant's average service and drab decor,

the food itself was famous throughout the region.

180.The professor had a strong motive for praising his colleague's findings:

the new discoveries vindicated his own long-held beliefs.

that since it was much more palatable than other brands, children actually enjoyed taking it.

182.Some theorists believe that globalization will lead to a convergence of values

and beliefs as countries come together to form one mass society.

183.The author had become increasingly reclusive with age,

refusing to grant interviews or make public appearances.

184.Liz's political science class held a mock presidential debate yesterday

so that students could experience some of the problems that candidates face in real debates.

185.During the dictator's rule, those who criticized his leadership were arrested and thrown

into prison with other political dissidents.

186.The woman was shocked by her date's uncouth behavior at the restaurant,

especially when he whistled to get the waiter's attention.

187.The union requested that the new policy on overtime pay be applied retroactively

from the beginning of the previous year.

188.The forested hillside, ablaze in autumn foliage,

provided a dramatic backdrop for the wedding ceremony.

189.When millionaire Rob Roberts heard about the archaic computers being used in local schools,

he donated $150,000 to help them upgrade their equipment.

190.The thieves ransacked the apartment, searching for any valuables.

191.A: Who's been tampering with my computer? All the settings have been changed.

B : I think I saw one of the systems people looking at it this morning.

192.Fearing an exodus of wealthy citizens to foreign countries,

the government decided to delay its plans for a large increase in income taxes.

193.In his speech, the president carefully avoided commenting

on any of the contentious issues currently dividing the public.

194.Rumors of an impending merger with a major rival,

together with news of a sharp rise in profits, sent the company's

shares soaring on the stock market.

195.The recent dearth of applicants for engineering programs at British universities

has forced the government to take special measures to attract more students.

196.When our firm's lawyers read the client contract carefully,

they found that a number of provisions had been added, so they advised us not to sign it.

197.A : Steve, did you manage to sell your house? B : No, the deal fell through.

The couple decided they couldn't afford our place after all.

198.The new CEO said the firm's financial problems boiled down to the fact

that its labor force was too large.

Some employees would have to lose their jobs.

199.Todd ran up a huge credit-card bill last month when he went on an overseas vacation,

bought a new fridge, and paid for some repairs to his car.

200.A : Julie, how are you? Any luck finding steady work? B : Well, I have a part-time job now,

so I'm just scraping by. I could really do with some extra cash.

2006-3

201.The tailor was adroit at making quick repairs to even the most difficult of garments.

202.Several soldiers were seriously injured when their vehicle hit and detonated a landmine.

203.narrowly missing a pair of elderly pedestrians crossing the street.

204.The team doctor warned the basketball player that he could aggravate

his knee injury if he started running too soon. "Wait another two weeks," the doctor said.

205.Even the prime minister's opponents admired the tenacious way

in which he carried out the education reforms he had promised,

despite the increasing unpopularity of the government.

206.The family of the defendant was hugely relieved

when the jury returned a verdict of not guilty on the charge of manslaughter.

207.The athlete clenched his teeth and made one final attempt to lift the barbell.

208.Ashley knew that the disease his mother had was hereditary,

so he wasn't surprised when the doctor confirmed that he had it, too.

209.If the planned closure of the electronics factory goes ahead,

it will only exacerbate the local unemployment problem.

210.The soldier winced in pain as the medic applied antiseptic to his wounds.

211.The company's profits were quickly squandered on luxury business travel

and the president's gambling habit.

212.Saddened by the recent loss of her close friend, Marge flipped through her photo albums,

seeking solace by recalling the times they had shared together.

213.John detested public speaking and was petrified at the thought of having to give a speech

in front of the entire company at the annual conference.

214.The rebellion was quickly quelled by forces loyal to the president.

215.During his annual performance evaluation, the man had planned to ask for a pay raise,

but in the end he did not have the courage to broach the subject.

216.Mr. Kelly was so afraid of confrontation at work that he would meekly

accept orders from anyone, even his subordinates.

217.The bank teller continued to feign ignorance about the missing money even though

there was an increasing amount of evidence against her.

218.Many people don't know that skateboarding is a direct offshoot of surfing.

In fact, when it first appeared, it was called "sidewalk surfing."

219.Arguing that the plight of the refugees was worsening because of a lack of aid,

U.N. officials reminded countries of their initial promises to provide funds.

220.The main beach was too crowded, so Adam walked along the shore until

he came to a secluded spot where he could read his book in peace.

221.The famous painter's later pieces were heavily criticized. Many critics said

it was amazing that an artist of his caliber could produce such uninspired work.

222.A: Andre, you need to patch up your differences with Edward after that argument

at yesterday's meeting. B: Yes, Mr. Smith. I'm sorry. I'll talk to him today.

223.I really admire Zoe. Even though she has to look after her sick mom,

she manages both to hold down a part-time job and volunteer at the community center.

224.A : I'm going to speak to the boss about John's behavior. He's just so rude.

B : I wouldn't kick up a fuss if I were you. I heard that John and the boss are good friends.

225.If domestic sales of its new compact eco-car take off,

the carmaker plans to introduce the vehicle on the international market.

2007-1

226.The school principal explained that the division of the students into different classes

was purely arbitrary and had nothing to do with their abilities.

227.After a string of failures, the aging singer decided to try and boost

his waning popularity by pairing up with the latest teenage sensation.

228.In a recent survey of top executives, 67% felt that effective marketing

was vital to product success, while 13% said it was only marginally important.

229.I tried to apologize to Jeff for breaking his car window,

but he just muttered something under his breath and walked away.

230.Many elderly people are forced to live on such meager pensions that

they can barely afford the necessities of life, let alone any luxuries.

231.Despite having been in the fiercest part of the fighting, the soldier emerged unscathed"

232.The lawyer thought it would be easy to defend his client because most of the accusations

against him were based on conjecture rather than on hard evidence.

233."Roger, congratulations on winning the Employee of the Year Award," said the CEO.

"You truly epitomize the company's values of hard work, honesty, and cooperation."

234.Although officials deny it, rumors are rife that the elderly king

is suffering from a life-threatening illness.

235.Supporters often extol the virtues of offshore outsourcing,

but they fail to mention some of the problems it can cause, like unemployment at home.

236.The ice skater had little time to savor her victory at the national tournament.

Within days, she was already training for the next competition.

237.No matter how much companies spend on network security, there is always a chance

that a hacker will find a way to circumvent it and enter the system.

238.The area around the old docks, once known as a haven for criminals,

has been redeveloped into an upscale entertainment area to attract tourists.

239.Before the journalist was allowed to meet the rebel leader at his base in the mountains,

armed guards frisked her to make sure she was not carrying any hidden weapons.

240.Violent snowstorms played havoc with the mountaineers' schedule.

They finally reached the summit two days later than originally planned.

241.Conscious of the fact their host had recently been fired,

the dinner guests were careful not to allude to work in any way.

242.The teenager told police that he had not wanted to steal candy from the store

but had been coerced into doing it by some older boys from his school.

243.The new production of Shakespeare's Macbeth was lambasted by critics and,

as a result, very few people went to see it.

244.When we arrived at the hotel, we were shocked by the disparity between

the beautiful photographs on its website and the hotel's poor condition.

245.Police have released footage of the bank robbery taken by a security camera,

hoping that a member of the public will recognize the criminals.

246.William's career as a currency trader had been very lucrative. After only 10 years,

he was able to retire and concentrate on his hobby of collecting art.

247.A: I've decided to vote against the merger at today's meeting.

B: Really? I was banking on your support. Is there anything I can say to change your mind?

248.It took Andy so long to muster the courage to ask Susan for a date that

she'd begun thinking that he wasn't interested in her.

249.I've noticed a lot of spelling mistakes have been cropping up in our reports recently.

Please be more careful from now on.

250.he student tried to pass off the research as his own,

but it was obvious that he had copied it from

2007-2

251.To the delight of conservationists, the council recently passed a new ordinance

strictly regulating construction projects in the city's historic district.

252.In his resignation letter, John wrote that he loved teaching but could no longer

handle the incessant demands from the children's parents.

253.A : Jessie, don't you think it's wrong to steal office supplies from your employer?

B : No, I have absolutely no scruples about it because they pay me next to nothing!

254.Losing all her possessions in the house fire was a very harrowing experience for Antonia,

so her boss gave her some time off to sort things out.

255.It took Ken a few weeks to muster the courage to tell his parents

that he had failed two of his final university exams.

256.The media slammed the pop star after he said it was OK to take illegal drugs.

Some newspapers recommended that people boycott his music.

257.I think Ms. Hayashi is a great teacher. She has a knack for explaining

difficult Japanese grammar in a way that everyone can understand.

258.The company CEO declined to comment on the merger negotiations.

"Any statement at this juncture might negatively affect the outcome," he said.

259."The major impediment to achieving peace is the government's

total refusal to talk to the rebels," said the TV correspondent.

260.The foreign minister resigned after he was publicly rebuked by the prime minister

for his involvement in a national scandal.

261.While the scientist's new theory about the causes of global warming has not won universal

acceptance yet, it has gained many adherents in the scientific community.

262.The young girl was so engrossed in her book that

she didn't even notice her mother had entered the room.

263.Cindy was overjoyed when the doctors informed her that the stomach

tumor they had tested was benign.

264.Although the woman usually opted for the cheapest flight available,

she decided to buy a business-class ticket for her birthday.

265.Customs officials confiscated the rare plants that the man tried to take into the country.

They explained that such products could not be imported without a permit.

266.The smooth-talking criminal swindled many elderly people out of their savings by falsely

promising to invest their money for them.

267.Having been brought up in a quiet village, Hideki could not get used to the

frenetic pace of life in Tokyo when he moved there.

268.Ten years after the northern tribe's defeat in the civil war, many of its people still feel

considerable animosity toward their former enemy in the south.

269.The radio station was inundated with complaints after it announced the cancellation of

a popular weekly news program.

270.A : Jason doesn't seem to be enjoying school lately.

B : I know. I think he's been completely ostracized by some of his classmates since

he told the teacher about them cheating on a test.

271.An expert in disguise and fluent in several languages, the secret agent has taken part

in many covert operations worldwide without once being detected.

272.My refrigerator suddenly stopped working last night.

The last thing I need right now is to shell out hundreds of dollars on a new one.

273.If we're planning to tap into the Chinese market, we should look for a suitable partner there.

We'll need their knowledge about the business culture.

274.There are only two weeks until my university finals,

so I've decided to buckle down and study at least four hours every day.

275.A : Did you see those police cars at the end of the block last night?

B : Yeah. I think they caught a car thief. They hauled off the suspect to the local police station.

2007-3

276."Let me make this very clear," warned the foreign minister.

"Any attacks on our territory will lead to serious repercussions."

277.The painting has always been attributed to Rembrandt,

although there is no conclusive evidence that he actually painted it.

278.When starting your own business, you should always draw up a contingency

plan in case things don't work out as well as you'd hoped.

279.As part of its efforts to garner public support for its tree-planting campaign,

the environmental group is producing a series of TV commercials.

280.The cheap tent was made of such flimsy material that it was quickly torn apart by the strong wind.

281.We knew that our basketball team had little chance of beating the champions,

but the result was even worse than we'd expected. In fact, it was a complete rout

282.Cheryl's job as editor-in-chief at a fashion magazine requires

that she be adept at turning an average article into an excellent one.

283.Local store owners fear that the new shopping mall on the edge of town

will lead to the demise of their businesses. "We won't be able to compete,

"said George Hammond, a grocer.

284.A : What would be the possible ramifications if we failed to meet the deadline specified

in the contract?

B : Well, there's always the chance that the clients would sue us for damages.

285.The scientists knew, the journey into the uncharted rain forest would be fraught

with danger but hoped it would lead to many important discoveries.

286.News magazine has full-time editing position available. Pay commensurate with experience.

Full benefits, potential for promotion. Send resume to job @ step.news.

287.Scientists hope that a recent discovery of dinosaur bones in South America

will help them unravel the mystery of why the dinosaurs disappeared.

288.After a workers' strike forced the company to halt operations,

the management agreed to make some concessions and will increase worker benefits.

289.While there were a few reports of ruling party supporters trying to subvert the election process,

the elections were declared free and fair by international observers.

290.After years of evading taxes, the famous author was forced to sell his house in order

to pay a substantial fine and return the money that he owed.

291.Major cities around the world used to look different from one another,

but modern skyscrapers have become so ubiquitous that many cities now look alike.

292.Protests and lawsuits by environmental groups confounded the chemical company's

efforts to build a factory near the river. The company is now searching for another location.

293.A : This article says the government needs to increase taxes to boost the health system.

Do you think that would help? B: Yes, but taxpayers already complain about how; much they pay.

Getting them to support increased taxes would be quite a feat.

294.For years, human rights activists have implored the government to change

its laws on the rights of political prisoners, but their demands have had no impact.

295.Although staff were unhappy about the company reducing salaries,

most were more concerned the cuts were a prelude to them losing their jobs altogether.

296.When the company dismissed Paul, it said that he had embellished the details of his resume

by including qualifications and work, experience that he didn't have.

297.Kevin thought he had saved enough money to buy a car, but after factoring in other costs,

such as insurance and tax, he realized he would have to wait until next summer.

298.A: So, did you tell the coach that you want to quit the swim team? B: Yeah, he was furious.

I got bawled out for my lack of commitment to the team for over 10 minutes!

299.A : You're taking a business course at night school, aren't you, Pamela? Is it expensive?

B : Well, the tuition is reasonable, but I've had to fork out over $300 for books already.

300.A : I can't believe our son was arrested for stealing a motorbike.

B : I think he was egged on by those new friends of his. They're a really bad influence on him.